The client and the contractor agree on work rates, material costs and direct working hours – usually planning and availability are integrated into the direct working hours part when drafting the contract. At the beginning of the project and before the start of the work, they negotiate prices that allow a reasonable supplement for the profit of the contractor, while meeting the expectations and budget of the client. There is no threshold for the overall price of the project, which can be risky for clients as there are no restrictions on the duration of the project or its final cost. Some T&M contracts do not include clauses that, like GMP contracts, set a limit on the amount a customer reimburses for labor and material costs. The inflexible upper limit of a GMP contract can be avoided by using an estimated maximum price or an EMP contract. An EMP can not only provide benefit-sharing for cost overruns, but also a joint contribution by the client and contractor to the financing of cost overruns. You can even get closer to having your building cake and eating it too. The value plan document lists the costs of the tasks, personnel and consumables that the contractor needs to complete the project. It includes trade categories (p.B plumbing, painting, welding and more) and estimated work (including subcontractors), materials and any amounts. The sum of the costs in this document is the maximum guaranteed price. A contract with a guaranteed maximum price is an interesting option for a person who wants to hire a contractor for obvious reasons: the contractor is obliged not to pay more than the maximum contract price and amortizes all the cost savings that may result, among other things, from efficient project management, improved prices of subcontractors or suppliers or ideal weather conditions. However, this Agreement may entail additional costs that are not covered by the Agreement. In particular, a contractor with no construction experience may be asked to hire an expert to negotiate the terms and verify the contractor`s costs to ensure that the final statement is correct [sources: Glazov, JMA].
Shelly said Shawmut is typically able to use AIA forms with very little change, and Schaap said the number of changes it makes to a basic contract depends on its client. She consults with her client, usually an owner, to determine the extent to which the contract should be “owner-centric.” Contracts with guaranteed maximum prices are relatively simple, but there are details that customers and contractors need to be aware of. The maximum guaranteed price consists of four parts: From the customer`s point of view, he wants GMP to apply to each item. Knowing the exact limit for each item makes accounting easier, and the savings on each item can go directly to the customer. From the point of view of the contractor or subcontractor, they prefer a guaranteed overall maximum price for the entire project. This way, if one item falls below the price and others, costs can easily be moved to multiple positions. It is more common for a job to have an overall GMP. One of the most common pricing structures is that the owner pays the contractor the labor costs plus the contractor`s fees. Often, in a “cost plus cost” contract, the contractor`s fees are calculated as a certain percentage of the actual costs associated with the work, including labour, materials, storage and transportation.
A common way to mitigate the owner`s risk and provide some level of certainty regarding the cost of the project is for the contractor to set a guaranteed maximum price. These contracts are best suited for projects whose costs can be accurately estimated and which do not have significant price fluctuations. Contracts with a guaranteed maximum price can also be combined with other types of contracts. In these cases, GMPs serve the same purpose, but the underlying agreement may be entered into under less stringent provisions, such as higher cost contracts, which are agreements to reimburse all expenses to the contractors, plus a predetermined amount of profit, usually a percentage of the total contract price. Savings incentives. As mentioned earlier, most of the risk under a GMP contract is transferred to the party doing the work. This gives contractors and subcontractors an initial incentive to reduce costs and complete their work earlier than planned. As mentioned earlier, cost savings can be structured in several ways. But customers will generally agree to share the cost savings. By sharing the potential benefits of effective and inexpensive work, it motivates everyone to work together and build a team mindset.
The American Institute of Architects (AIA) offers more than a guaranteed contract template at the highest price. These are considered the industry standard and are widely recognized as complete and reliable documents. The template contains all the necessary clauses and helps companies that are new to this contract or want to standardize their existing GMP agreement. However, it is important to note that model-based contracts serve as an example of a guaranteed maximum price and must be tailored to each project to avoid costly legal mistakes. It is also advisable to have the document checked by a lawyer to ensure its legality. If the cost exceeds this amount, entrepreneurs will have to pay them out of pocket, which will reduce their profits. If the project is below the GMP budget, the client retains the savings. However, it is not uncommon for customers to share some of the remaining funds with contractors to reduce costs. The guaranteed maximum price is a standard project management tool to reduce costs.
It also allows contractors to have a more say in planning, making project management more collaborative between contractors and clients. Under a unit price agreement, a contractor simply sets a price for each “unit of work.” For example, a road construction contract may require the contractor to pay a fixed unit price for each kilometre or mile of road built in a given area. These contracts are usually used for projects that can easily be divided into work units [source: Glazov]. Another reason why the price of the GMP contract could exceed the maximum guaranteed price is a change in the scope of work, according to Robinson. He gave the example of a project in which construction crews discover a landfill under land that everyone assumed was building land. “Now there are EPA fees and all sorts of other costs, and that $10 million workload has become a $12 million scope of work,” he said. In a lump sum contract (also known as a fixed-price contract), the project owner provides the contractor with the final project plans, construction designs and specifications, as well as a schedule, and the contractor provides an estimate that includes the price of materials, labor, overhead and the contractor`s profit. Regardless of the actual costs, the contractor will receive a lump sum. Entrepreneurs do not have to open their books to customers and individual costs are not reimbursed. In the case of flat-rate projects, the contractors receive the agreed price and all savings resulting from the coverage of the budget go back to them. These contracts are suitable for customers with tight budgets because there is a fixed cost threshold.
Under the terms of the contract, customers can keep the savings if the project falls under GMP, but it`s common to share with contractors as an incentive to end up under budget. Increased risk for entrepreneurs. Operating under a GMP contract transfers a large part of the risk to the parties performing the work, as they have to suffer cost overruns. What can be done to mitigate this risk? First, a contractor or subcontractor may charge more. A higher risk should lead to greater rewards. Of course, this is a dangerous undertaking – especially if the award process is carried out through tenders. Another option is to pass on this risk to your subcontractors by also making their GMP contracts. Finally, a contractor or subcontractor can minimize their exposure to risk by using solid calculation software. The ability to accurately calculate an order can help ensure that the customer does not have to be overcharged.
Contracts with a guaranteed maximum price can be complicated and affect certain moving parts. Managing tasks, risks and variations for a GMP contract is much easier with efficient accounting software. Financial management software can improve all aspects of project finances, including accounting, invoicing, and reporting. This software automates cost calculations and invoicing tasks and tracks accounts payable and receivable for each project. Financial management platforms also offer contract cost modules to monitor and analyze material purchases, labor costs, overhead, and other project-related expenses. In GMP contracts, the role of the general contractor as construction manager is at risk (CMAR). Here, the site manager is responsible for leading the development phase of the project and advising the client on the design and scope of the project, budget concerns, material adequacy and availability, construction challenges and other important aspects. This allows the contractor to develop an accurate and transparent GMP that both parties agree to. Once the project is underway, the CMAR is the primary point of contact for project owners, workers and subcontractors who strive to keep costs within the agreed threshold and maintain high-quality production.
Although the GMP contract is popular in the construction industry, it is not the only type of legal agreement used in construction projects. A cost-plus contract is similar to a GMP contract in that remuneration is based on costs incurred and fixed costs. The only difference is that a “cost plus” contract may not include a cap or maximum price. .